Constitutional Structures/Phase of Pakistan

The main and common features of the Constitutional Structures of Pakistan and history which in further divided into various phases. Constitutional and political history of Pakistan is described as follow:

Phase One 1947-1956

Title: Emerging Era of Pakistan

Features: 1) Death of M Ali Jinnah, 2) Parliamentary Democracy,3) 1st War (1948),4) Role of Religion,5) Constitutional Law 1965, 6) Political instability, 7) Death of Liaqat Ali Khan, 8) Lack of Human Capital,9) Majority was illiterate, 10) Lack of Financial Budget.

Phase Two 1956-1958

Title: Various Constitutional Steps

Features: 1) Implementation of Constitution, 2) became Islamic state, 3) Federal form of Government, 4) Iskander Mirza President, 5) Religious Orthodoxy, 6) Muslim League lost his strength, 7) No Significant National Party, 8) Less Political Activities, 9) Governmental instability, 10) Governor General Replaced with president.

Phase Three 1958-1969

Title: Muhammad Ayub’s Rule

Features: 1) Martial Law, 2) Z. A Bhutto Emerged as a Leader, 3) PPP Founded, 4) No Written Constitution, 5) Iskander Mirza Out of Scene, 6) 2nd War (1965), 7) Parliament with no power, 8) Various Economic Steps were taken by Government, 9) Campaign against dictator, 10) Centralized Government Promoted, 11) 2nd 1962 Constitution.

Phase Four 1969-1971

Title: Turning Point of Pakistan

Features: 1) Ayub Resigned, 2) Yahya Came into power after Ayub, 3) 1ST General Election, 4) Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) Won majority Seats, 5) dispute between Bhutto & Majeeb Ur Rehman Shami, 6) Elections were arranged by Yahya,7) Suspended 1962 Constitution, 8) Emergency Rule, 9) Troops to East Pakistan, 10) division of East & West Pakistan.

Phase Five 1971-1977

Title: Major Setback after Partition

Features: 1) Z. A Bhutto governed until 1973, 2) Emergency Legislation, 3) 3rd Constitution 1973,

4) Nationalization, 5) National Assembly were weak & ineffective, 6) 1973 constitution has changed all the dynamics, 7) Law Making on the larger scale, 8) Supremacy of Parliament, 9) distribution of power, 10) Anti Ahmadiyya Law.

Phase Six 1977-1985

Title: Worst time period of Pakistan

Features: 1) Bhutto was removed from office, 2) Martial Law of Zia UL Haq, 3) Referendum, 4) Nonparty Elections,5) Islamization, 6) Afghan War started, 7) hatred towards minorities, 8) Islamic laws, 9) Hypocrisy at its peak in his tenure, 10) Bhutto’s Assassination.

Phase Seven 1985-1988

Title: Dictatorship shift to democracy

Features: 1) Afghan War settlement, 2) Zia Dissolved all assemblies,3) 8th Amendment, 4) Zia plane crash, 5) Ghulam Ishaq Khan interim president, 6) M Khan Janejo was prime minister, 7) Elections held in November, 8) Benazir became Prime Minister, 9) First female prime minister of Pakistan, 10) Ghulam Ishaq Continued as President.

Phase Eight 1988-1997

Title: Exchange of Powers between Two parties

Features: 1) Unable to change Zia’s constitutional system, 2) Exercising power of Article 58(2)(b), 3) PPP Government dismissed, 4) New Elections were held 1990, 5) Nawaz Sharif became Prime minister with the help of IJI, 6) Nawaz Shareef Government dismissed by president later restored, 7) Again Benazir became PM of Pakistan, 8) Farooq Leghari was elected as President, 9) Farooq Leghari dissolved the government of PPP and elections were held in 1997 Feb, 10) Nawaz Sharif won elections with 2/3 majority.

Phase Nine 1997-1999 

Title: Nawaz Sharif 2nd Tenure

Features: 1) Nawaz Sharif became prime minister for the 2nd time, 2) 13th and 14th Amendments were passed, 3) 14th amendment challenged in Supreme Court, 4) Historic attack on supreme court from Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) leaders and workers, 5) Justice Sajjad Ali Shah issued contempt of court on NS, 6) dispute between judges, 7) Justice Ajmal Mian became Chief Justice, 8) Rafiq Tarar new president, 9) NS was looking strong after appointing people of his choice, 10) COAS tour to Srilanka.

Phase Ten 1999-2000

Title: Army Takeover

Features: 1) NS dismissed COAS while he is abroad, 2) NS jailed, 3) Oath under PCO, 4) Judiciary divided into two groups, 5) Hijacking airplane case against Nawaz Sharif, 6) deal between NS & P. Musharraf, 7) slogan of accountability was raised, 8) Elections after 3 years, 9) National & Provincial Assemblies were reconstituted, 10) NS and his family left Pakistan.

Phase Eleven 2000-2007

Title: Dictatorship

Features: 1) Many reforms have been done, 2) Referendum, 3) Local Body Governments, 4) passage of 17th Amendment, 5) Restoration of president power, 6) PML-Q & MMA Supported Pervaiz Musharraf, 7) Zafrullah Jamali, Shujat Hussain & Shaukat Aziz remain Prime minister from 2002 to 2007, 8) dispute with sitting Chief Justice Iftikhar M CH, 9) 12 May Karachi killings, 10) NRO.

Phase Twelve 2007-2010

Title: Restoration of Democracy

Features: 1) Returning of Benazir and Nawaz Sharif, 2) Death of Benazir in December 2007, 3) PPP won General election of 2008, 4) Yousef Raza Gillani Became the prime minister, 5) Pervaiz Musharraf Resigned, 6) Asif Ali Zardari became President, 7) Restoration of Judiciary, 8) JI & PTI did boycott of Elections, 9) NS & SS disqualified later reversed, 10) Electronic Media Emerged.

 Phase Thirteen 2010-2018

Title: Continuity of democracy

Features: 1) Yousef Raza Gilliani disqualified, 2) Raja Pervaiz Ashraf became prime minister, 3) five year of democracy completed successfully, 4) Imran Khan & PTI emerged as the third force of Pakistan, 5) 2013 General Election was held, 6) PML-N Won the election with majority, 7) Allegations of rigging from 22 parties, 8) Longest protest of the world from Pakistan Tahreek-e-insaaf (PTI) under leadership of Imran Khan against government, 9) NS disqualified from parliament as well as from the head of his party, 10) Shahid Khaqan Abbasi became prime minister & mamnoon Hussain continuing as a president.