DEMOCRACY VS AUTOCRACY: In an autocratic government, citizens are prevented from exercising political authority, and civil independence is restricted.
Prior to Second World War, many young democratic nations regressed to become autocratic states. DEMOCRACY VS AUTOCRACY The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1989 was a shift in political dynamics as Gorbachev’s reforms in shifting the USSR toward a slow process of democracy, allowed elections with a multi-party system to create presidency for the Soviet Union which instead lead to destabilization of the Communist control and finally dissolution of the mighty Soviet Union.
The Communist elite had planned to foil Gorbachev’s reform agenda. Finally, Gorbachev acceded to Germany merging and acquiesced to a reunited Germany joining NATO. At one point, the Soviet Union and the United States repelled an attack by Iraq’s Leader Saddam Hussein on Kuwait
As Gorbachev withdrew from countries of Eastern Europe thereby creating a democratic impetus leading to the end of Communism throughout Eastern Europe
Finally, the cessation of Communism led to the uprising of the Baltic States and the Caucasus demanding independence. As a result, In January 1991, violence spread in Lithuania and Latvia as Soviet tanks invaded these regions to prevent their insurgence. The 1991 coup against Gorbachev planned by hard-line Communists was a failure but depleted Gorbachev’s authority. The resultant mobilization of Yeltsin to the forefront and decline of Gorbachev’s power lead to Gorbachev resignation. A few days after the failed coup, Belarus and Ukraine declared their independence from the Soviet Union while the Baltic States, having achieved independence, sought international approval.
Finally, On December 25, 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union, leaving behind Boris Yeltsin as president of the newly independent Russian state. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; while the Russian Soviet Federation Socialist Republic (RSFSR) reconstituted as the Russian Federation and considered as continuing legal personality and sole successor state of the Soviet Union. According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy.
The transition of the Communist Soviet Union to the multi-party democratic Russian Federation has a long but bitter story. The journey is arduous but all in the name of democracy.
Written By: Dr. Zaib Khan
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